Paper production began in the 14th century. The valley became a fundamental paper-making center in the territories of the Republic of Venice between 15th and 18th century, and venue for original business between 19th and 20th century. The Paper Mill Valley of Toscolano Maderno has preserved some impressive testimonials of its industrial past, in an environment which appears to be in a stunning contrast with that of the Riviera. The charm of the landscape, which is characterized by steep slopes and closed among narrow canyons, derives also from the richness and variety of its vegetation, which is mingled with the ruins and areas that were part of the ancient industry. A little further up the valley of Camerate, a group of volunteers has created an experimental fish hatchery for the protection of biodiversity.